supercritical co2 extraction machine
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Research Progress of Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction Technology in Vegetable Oil Extraction

The supercritical co2 fluid extraction refers to the fluid state when the material is above itscritical temperature and pressure. This fluid has the advantages of both liquidand gas, high density, low viscosity, low surface tension, and extremely highdissolution and diffusion capacity. These properties make supercritical fluidsa solvent with adjustable properties, which is widely used in chemicalreactions and extraction of organic substances. The basic principle ofsupercritical fluid extraction technology is: using the special properties ofsupercritical fluid, the extract is dissolved in the fluid under high pressure,and then the pressure of the fluid solution is lowered or the temperature ofthe fluid solution is raised, so that the solute dissolved in the supercriticalfluid can be precipitated because of the decrease of its density andsolubility. Thus, the extraction of specific solutes can be realized.

supercritical fluid extraction system

supercritical CO2 fluid extraction machine
supercritical CO2 fluid extraction machine

Vegetable oil is not only the main edible oil in human diet, but also the important raw material of food, spices, chemical industry and so on. With the continuous development of new vegetable oil resources and their physiological functions and functions, people have gradually revealed that people pay more and more attention to the selection of extraction technology of vegetable oil. At present, the main methods of preparing vegetable oil include pressing, enzymatic hydrolysis, leaching and supercritical fluid extraction. Among them, supercritical CO2 extraction technology is a new type of high-efficiency extraction separation and analysis technology, which has been developed at home and abroad. Because of its mild operating conditions, simple process, high efficiency, less damage to active ingredients, easy separation of products, pollution-free and other advantages, it is especially suitable for extraction, extraction and purification of biological, food, etc. Cosmetics and drugs are widely used in the extraction of vegetable oils. In this paper, the principle, characteristics and influencing factors of supercritical CO2 extraction technology are briefly analyzed. The application status of supercritical CO2 extraction technology in vegetable oil extraction in recent years is reviewed. Its shortcomings are briefly described. At the same time, the development prospect of supercritical CO2 extraction technology as one of the hot research technologies in the field of vegetable oil extraction is prospected.

 

Definition of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Its Basic Principles

It is found that there exists a special temperature for each liquid. No matter how high the pressure is above that temperature, it is impossible to liquefy the gas. The temperature is called critical temperature, and the corresponding saturated vapor pressure is called critical pressure. As early as 1879, foreign researchers discovered the unique dissolution of supercritical fluids in the experiment of dissolving potassium iodide with supercritical ethanol. The so-called supercritical fluid refers to the fluid state when the material is above its critical temperature and pressure. This fluid has the advantages of both liquid and gas, high density, low viscosity, low surface tension, and extremely high dissolution and diffusion capacity. These properties make supercritical fluids a solvent with adjustable properties, which is widely used in chemical reactions and extraction of organic substances. The basic principle of supercritical fluid extraction technology is: using the special properties of supercritical fluid, the extract is dissolved in the fluid under high pressure, and then the pressure of the fluid solution is lowered or the temperature of the fluid solution is raised, so that the solute dissolved in the supercritical fluid can be precipitated because of the decrease of its density and solubility. Thus, the extraction of specific solutes can be realized.

Common supercritical extraction solvents are ethane, propane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, n-pentane, freon and so on. When extracting vegetable oils by supercritical fluid extraction, CO2 is generally the first choice, which is called supercritical CO2 fluid extraction technology.

supercritical extraction equipment

Characteristics of Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction Technology

Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE) is a new extraction and separation technology, which has many advantages. It can be summarized as follows:

1. Compared with the traditional pressing and solvent extraction methods, it has the advantages of high extraction rate and simple solvent recovery. At the same time, it can selectively extract the material components.

2. The critical temperature and pressure of CO2 are relatively low, and there is no phase transition process. In this way, the operation of supercritical fluid extraction can be realized at room temperature or slightly higher than room temperature, which greatly reduces the energy consumption. On the other hand, it also reduces the requirements for equipment and improves the safety of production operation.

3. Near the critical point of CO2, a small increase in temperature and pressure can lead to a great increase in fluid density, which can lead to a significant change in the solubility of supercritical CO2 fluids. Therefore, selective extraction of substances can be achieved by changing the temperature and pressure of supercritical CO2.

4. SFE is the cleanest extraction method. Compared with some traditional organic solvents, carbon dioxide is less active, so it is not easy to react with the substances to be separated and organic solvents are not used in the whole process. Therefore, there are no residues in the extraction process, and at the same time, the toxicity of the extraction process to human body and the pollution to the environment are prevented. It's 100% natural.

5. The residue of vegetable oil extracted by supercritical CO2 fluid is still intact. It can be easily used to extract protein, mix food or feed, which is conducive to the comprehensive utilization of raw materials.

6. Separation of CO2 from products can be easily achieved by isothermal decompression or isobaric heating.

Seventh, CO2 has the advantages of low price, easy production, non-flammability, non-toxicity, solvent-free residue and no environmental pollution. It has a very broad application prospects in vegetable oil extraction.

 

supercritical CO2 fluid extraction machine
supercritical CO2 fluid extraction machine

Research Progress of Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction Technology in Vegetable Oil Extraction

Plant seeds and other raw materials are rich in oil, and vegetable oils contain high fat content, rich in vitamin E, a small amount of potassium, sodium, calcium and trace elements [18]. In addition, vegetable oils contain unsaturated fatty acids, low solubility, liquid at room temperature, high digestibility and absorption. Vegetable oil is an important source of essential fatty acids for human body. In order to meet the needs of human body, it should not be less than 50% of the total fat source in diet. At present, supercritical CO2 fluid extraction technology has been widely used in the extraction of vegetable oils and fats. Soybean, seabuckthorn, wheat, grape seed, corn, rice bran, sesame and other varieties have been studied extensively, and industrial application results have been achieved.

co2 extraction system

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