Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction of volatile components from garlic skin
Supercritical co2 extraction process
Pulverization degree:80 mesh
Extraction pressure: 37 MPa
Extraction temperature: 38°C
Separation kettle Ⅰ pressure: 0.5 MPa
Extraction time: 180 min
Garlic is the bulb of the garlic of the Allium family of the Liliaceae, which can be used for both medicine and food.
Garlic contains a variety of ingredients, including volatile oil, amino acids, vitamins, sugar, protein, various minerals and trace elements. It has a variety of medicinal values for the human body. It is a broad-spectrum antibacterial drug that has anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and hypolipidemic effects. , Inhibit platelet aggregation, prevent and cure cancer, anti-oxidation, enhance immunity and other functions, and have been widely used in many fields such as medicine, food, cosmetics and so on.
In addition, with the development of science, the types and quantity of garlic deep-processing products are increasing day by day, mainly including garlic flakes, garlic oil, garlic mask, etc. However, garlic peels are often discarded as a by-product of processing, causing waste of resources and pollution to the environment.
The study found that garlic skin is rich in various active substances in garlic. Therefore, reasonable and full use of garlic skin can not only extend the garlic industry chain, promote the development of garlic industry, turn waste into treasure, but also protect the environment.
Supercritical CO2 extraction
Weigh about 10 g of garlic skin raw material, soak garlic skin raw material with 70% ethanol solution as entrainer, then put the above garlic skin sample into the extraction tank, set the extraction pressure, extraction temperature and extraction time to 370 bar , 38 ℃, 9 h (collect the supercritical CO2 extract of garlic skin every 3 h, collect a total of 3 times), and combine the three extracts.
GC-MS measurement conditions:
Gas chromatography conditions: DB-5 elastic quartz capillary column (30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 um). High-purity helium is used as the carrier gas, the flow rate is 1.0 ml/min, and the temperature is programmed: the column temperature is increased from 60 ℃ (maintained for 0 min), 10 ℃/min to 80 ℃ (maintained for 2 min), and then at 8 ℃/min The temperature was raised to 180 ℃ (maintained for 2 min), and then increased to 260 ℃ (maintained for 20 min) at 5 ℃/min.
Mass spectrometry conditions: ionization mode: EI source, energy 70 eV, ion source temperature 200 ℃, scan mass range 30 to 550 amu, full scan mode, solvent delay 3 min. Spectral search: NIST08.L spectral library is used.
According to the above experimental method, GC-MS analysis of garlic skin components, computer mass spectrometry system search (NIST08.L), using the area normalization method to determine the mass fraction of each component. A total of 30 compounds were identified from the garlic skin composition, of which the main component was ethyl palmitate 19.15%, followed by ethyl linoleate 15.42%, palmitic acid 10.03%, and 2-ethylhexyl phthalate 6.4% , 2.58% ethyl oleate, etc. In addition, also identified a thioether compound-diallyl trisulfide 0.18%, a plant sterol-stigmasterol 0.04%.
At present, GC-MS analysis of garlic skin chemical composition has not been reported. In this paper, the chemical composition of garlic skin extract is analyzed for the first time. The main component of garlic skin extract is fatty acid, showing that garlic skin fatty acid mainly contains even carbon Of fatty acids (content 69.74%), and the content of odd carbon fatty acids is very low (2.83%), indicating that the fatty acids in garlic skin have high nutritional value.
Plant fatty acids have a variety of pharmacological activities, mainly including lowering blood pressure, lowering blood fat, anti-cardiovascular disease, and promoting growth and development. Linoleic acid and its esters are the main fatty acids in garlic skin, accounting for 23.12% of the total fatty acids. Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid for the human body. It has the functions of lowering cholesterol in the blood, lowering blood fat, preventing atherosclerosis, and resisting breast cancer. Active, helps the normal metabolism of body fat and cholesterol, thereby preventing the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases.
The study found that volatile oils mainly composed of myristic acid, palmitic acid, and lauric acid have antibacterial activity in vitro. These three components may also be one of the medicinal components of garlic skin antibacterial effect. In addition, garlic skin also contains a thioether compound-diallyl trisulfide, this thioether compound is the main active ingredient contained in garlic, with antibacterial anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-tumor, enhanced Immunity and other effects. This ingredient may be one of the medicinal ingredients of garlic skin.
Phytosterol is a Chinese medicine that can lower cholesterol in the blood and regulate blood lipids. It has pharmacological activities such as cancer prevention, prostate disease prevention, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral, and anti-viral. One.
The study found that the main component of garlic volatile oil is sulfide compounds, and also contains a small amount of fatty acids. It mainly has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, lowers blood pressure, lowers blood fat, inhibits platelet aggregation, prevents cancer, and enhances immunity. Medicinal value and nutritional value.We found that the medicinal and edible value of garlic and garlic skin is mainly due to the mixed ingredients, but their main ingredients are different. The main function of garlic is reflected in its medicinal value, and the main function of garlic skin is reflected in Its edible value, therefore, reasonable and full use of garlic and garlic skin has important practical significance.
Studies have shown that the high content of fatty acids in garlic skin may be its medicinal components for lowering blood pressure, blood fat, cholesterol, and anti-cardiovascular disease; thioether compounds in garlic skin, myristic acid, palm Volatile oils mainly composed of acid and lauric acid may be their medicinal ingredients for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-tumor, and immunity enhancement; phytosterols in garlic skin may be used for the prevention and treatment of cancer, prostate disease, Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antiviral effects.
Therefore, the processing and utilization of garlic skin has broad prospects in the research of health products. The experimental analysis results in this paper provide a certain theoretical basis for the application of garlic peel in various fields such as medicine, chemistry, and health care products.