plc controlled experimental supercritical fluid_extraction equipment

Solute solubility in supercritical CO2

What is supercritical co2 extraction systems

  • Extension of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technology

    Foreword:

    In order to further improve the extraction ability and selectivity of target solutes by CO2, researchers have studied various ways to expand the supercritical CO2 extraction technology, so that the application range of the supercritical extraction technology has been expanded.

  • Supercritical co2 extraction process using entrainer

    Abstract:

    However, the disadvantage is that the entrainer complicates the separation of the solute from the solvent and requires the addition of a special recovery system, such as the use of operation units such as evaporation and rectification.It is far less simple than using a single SCF process. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are determined.

  • Supercritical co2 extraction using an entrainer

  • Supercritical extraction of CO2 as a single medium

    Foreword:

    In SFE technology, supercritical CO2 extraction using CO2 as the extraction medium is the most widely used.

    Supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 as a single medium is mainly used for lipophilic, non-polar materials with small molecular weight, which is mentioned in the solubility rules and Compounds that are miscible or highly soluble with supercritical CO2. If the components contained in the raw materials belong to the mentioned compounds, it is difficult to extract and remain in the raffinate.

  • Solute solubility in supercritical CO2

    Foreword:

    It is of theoretical and practical significance to study the solubility of solutes in supercritical CO. The CO2 solubility rules summarized by the research results of francisah, Dandge, Hyat and other scholars are helpful for people to initially understand the solubility and selectivity of various solutes in supercritical CO2. The solubility rules are as follows:

  • The latest version of 2020 supercritical fluid extraction entrainer

    Description:

    In the supercritical state, CO2 has a selective dissolution. SFE-CO2 shows excellent solubility for low-molecular, low-polarity, lipophilic, low-boiling components such as volatile oils, hydrocarbons, esters, lactones, ethers, epoxy compounds, etc., like aroma components of natural plants and fruits.

    Learn more:What is supercritical co2 extraction systems

    For compounds with polar groups (-OH, -COOH, etc.), the more polar groups, the more difficult it is to extract, so the polyol, polyacid and polyhydroxy aromatic substances are difficult to dissolve in supercritical carbon dioxide. For compounds with high molecular weight, the higher the molecular weight, the more difficult it is to extract, and the polymer compounds with molecular weight exceeding 500 are also almost insoluble.

    For the supercritical fluid extraction of traditional Chinese medicine propolis for the active ingredients of Chinese herbal medicines with larger molecular weight and more polar groups, a third component needs to be added to the binary system composed of active ingredients and supercritical carbon dioxide to change the original effective The solubility of the components. In the research of supercritical liquid extraction, the third component with changing the solubility of the solute is usually referred to as the entrainer (there are also many literatures that refer to the entrainer as a subcritical component).

    Generally speaking, solvents with good dissolving properties are often good entraining agents, such as methanol, ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  • Supercritical fluid extraction separation technology

    Description:

    Supercritical fluid extraction is a new type of extraction and separation technology.

    It uses a supercritical fluid, that is, a fluid in a thermodynamic state at a temperature higher than the critical temperature and a pressure higher than the critical pressure, as an extractant. Extract specific components from liquid or solid to achieve the purpose of separation.

    The characteristics of supercritical fluid extraction are: the extractant is a gas at normal pressure and room temperature, and it is easy to separate from the raffinate phase and the extraction group after extraction; it operates at a lower profitability, and is particularly suitable for the separation of natural substances; it can adjust the pressure , Temperature and attractive entraining agent can adjust the dissolving ability of the transboundary fluid, and can gradually extract the components into the desired product through the gradually density and temperature and pressure.

Foreword:

It is of theoretical and practical significance to study the solubility of solutes in supercritical CO. The CO2 solubility rules summarized by the research results of francisah, Dandge, Hyat and other scholars are helpful for people to initially understand the solubility and selectivity of various solutes in supercritical CO2. The solubility rules are as follows:

Supercritical CO2
Supercritical CO2

① The solubility values ​​of solutes in subcritical CO2 and supercritical CO2 generally differ by about an order of magnitude, but no phenomenon has been found that any substance does not dissolve in subcritical CO2 but dissolves in supercritical state. Consistency of solubility behavior in critical CO2 and supercritical CO2

② CO2 has a strong homogenization effect. Studies have shown that at least 14 compounds can form a homogeneous miscible state with CO2 at moderate pressure and room temperature, that is, liquid CO2 and supercritical CO2 can interact with many non-polar, weak Polar solutes are miscible, such as normal alkanes with less than 12 carbon atoms, normal olefins with less than 10 carbon atoms, lower alcohols with less than 6 carbon atoms in the main chain, and lower carbons with less than 10 carbon atoms in the main chain Esters produced from fatty acid acids with less than or equal to 12 carbon atoms in the main chain and alcohols with less than or equal to 4 carbon atoms in the main chain, low carbon aldehydes with less than 7 carbon atoms, low carbon ketones with less than 8 carbon atoms, carbon Low-carbon ethers with less than 4 atoms, etc.

③ Liquid CO2 and supercritical CO2 under moderate pressure show excellent solubility for the above-mentioned aliphatic hydrocarbons and low-polar lipophilic compounds, but as the number of carbon atoms increases, that is, as the chain length and As molecular weight increases, its solubility in liquid CO2 and supercritical CO2 will change from miscible state to partial dissolution, and the solubility will gradually decrease.

④ The introduction of strong polar functional groups (such as OH, COOH) will reduce the solubility of the compound, so polyols, polyacids, and multiple hydroxyl and carboxyl aromatic substances are difficult to dissolve in compressed CO2. Such as ethylene glycol, glycerol and polyphenols have very low solubility in liquid CO2 and supercritical CO2

⑤ Liquid CO2 and supercritical CO2 are for most mineral inorganic salts and highly polar substances (such as sugar, amino acid, starch, protein, etc.) are almost insoluble, so they will not be extracted during sub-supercritical and supercritical CO2 extraction

⑥ Liquid CO2 and supercritical CO2 are almost insoluble to compounds with a molecular weight exceeding 500.

The above rules provide a preliminary qualitative judgment on whether a substance can use supercritical CO2 as an extraction solvent, and also provide a basis for the range of substances that can be selected as a co-reagent when a CO-solvent is required in the CO2 extraction process.

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