Abelmoschus manihot, commonly known as the sunset muskmallow, is a plant species that is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Its seeds contain a high amount of oil, which has been shown to have many applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Conventionally, Abelmoschus manihot seed oil is obtained through solvent extraction or mechanical pressing methods, which often lead to low oil yields, poor quality, and potential risks to human health and the environment. In recent years, supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction has emerged as a promising alternative for the sustainable and high-quality production of Abelmoschus manihot seed oil. This article will discuss the principles, procedures, and advantages of SC-CO2 extraction for Abelmoschus manihot seed oil, with a focus on its sustainability and potential applications.
Principles of SC-CO2 Extraction
Supercritical CO2 extraction is a technique that utilizes the unique properties of SC-CO2, which exhibits both liquid-like and gas-like behavior under specific temperature and pressure conditions. SC-CO2 has high solubility, low viscosity, and is non-toxic, making it a popular solvent for various extraction processes. SC-CO2 extraction involves the use of CO2 as the extracting solvent, which is passed through the plant material at specific temperatures and pressures. The CO2 dissolves the oil from the plant material, and the mixture is then separated to obtain the desired oil fraction.
Procedures of SC-CO2 Extraction for Abelmoschus manihot Seed Oil
The SC-CO2 extraction of Abelmoschus manihot seed oil involves several steps, as summarized in Table 1 below.
Summary of SC-CO2 extraction procedures for Abelmoschus manihot seed oil.
|1||Grinding and drying of Abelmoschus manihot seeds|
|2||Loading the seeds into the extraction vessel|
|3||Pumping CO2 into the extraction vessel to achieve the desired pressure and temperature|
|4||Extracting the oil from the seeds|
|5||Separating the oil and CO2 mixture to obtain the desired oil fraction|
|6||Collecting and characterizing the extracted Abelmoschus manihot seed oil|
Advantages of SC-CO2 Extraction for Abelmoschus manihot Seed Oil
SC-CO2 extraction offers several advantages over traditional methods for the production of Abelmoschus manihot seed oil. Firstly, it produces a high yield of oil that is of high quality, with a desirable fatty acid composition and excellent sensory properties. Secondly, SC-CO2 is a non-toxic, environmentally friendly, and reusable solvent, making it a sustainable alternative to traditional solvents. Thirdly, SC-CO2 extraction is a precise and simple method that is easy to scale up for large-scale oil production. Finally, since it is a continuous process, it is more efficient than traditional methods that involve batch processing.
Applications of Abelmoschus manihot Seed Oil
Abelmoschus manihot seed oil has many applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. It is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, which play important roles in human health, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, improving skin conditions, and enhancing overall health. Abelmoschus manihot seed oil has potential applications in various food products, such as salad dressings, mayonnaise, and sauces, as well as in the cosmetic industry as a natural emollient and moisturizer. It also has potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry, particularly in the development of novel drug delivery systems.
Sustainability of SC-CO2 Extraction for Abelmoschus manihot Seed Oil
SC-CO2 extraction is a sustainable method for the production of Abelmoschus manihot seed oil. Firstly, it uses a non-toxic, environmentally friendly, and reusable solvent, which reduces the risk of environmental pollution and human health hazards. Secondly, it produces a high yield of oil, which reduces the amount of plant material required for oil production, thereby conserving natural resources and preserving biodiversity. Thirdly, it is a precise and efficient method that reduces energy consumption and the carbon footprint associated with oil production.
In conclusion, SC-CO2 extraction is a promising method for the sustainable and high-quality production of Abelmoschus manihot seed oil. It offers several advantages over conventional methods, such as high yield, high-quality oil, and environmental sustainability. Abelmoschus manihot seed oil has potential applications in various industries, such as food, cosmetic, and pharmaceuticals, and SC-CO2 extraction provides a reliable method for meeting the increasing demand for natural and sustainable ingredients. With the growing awareness of environmental and health issues, it is likely that SC-CO2 extraction will continue to gain popularity as a preferred method for the production of Abelmoschus manihot seed oil and other natural products.
List of Advantages of SC-CO2 Extraction for Abelmoschus manihot Seed Oil
SC-CO2 extraction offers several advantages for the production of Abelmoschus manihot seed oil, as listed below:
- High yield of oil with desirable fatty acid composition and excellent sensory properties
- Non-toxic, environmentally friendly, and reusable solvent
- Precise and simple method that is easy to scale up for large-scale production
- Continuous process that is more efficient than traditional batch processing
- Potential applications in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries
- Sustainable method that conserves natural resources and reduces environmental footprint.
Okra is an annual herbaceous plant of the genus Okra of the Malvaceae family.
The plant height is 1.5-2.0 meters, with many branches, dark green leaves, bright yellow flowers 16-18 cm in diameter, and round dark brown seeds.
Okra can be used as both food and anther, which can clear heat and cool blood. The fruit and seeds have the functions of invigorating the spleen and stomach and promoting muscle growth. It can treat indigestion, reluctance to eat, and traumatic injuries.
Its total flavonoids can significantly regulate human endocrine and immunity, increase human resistance, improve cardiovascular and cerebrovascular and microcirculation functions, and enhance the body’s antioxidant capacity; rich natural phytoestrogens are useful for prolonging female puberty and reducing or avoiding middle-aged menopause. Symptoms also have miraculous effects.
Okra is also rich in hyperoside, and hyperoside has obvious anti-inflammatory effects, strong cough-reducing effect an assimilation effect.
Okra dried flower contains 37.63mg of flavonoids per gram, okra seed kernels contain 26.013mg of flavonoids per gram, okra seed kernel oil contains VE as high as 1.976mg per gram, and the content of flavonoids and VE is dozens of times that of other plants.
CO2 extraction method
Okra seed→dry at 45℃ to constant weight→crush→supercritical static extraction for 1h→supercritical circulation extraction for 3h→combine the extracts, calculate the extraction rate of okra seed oil→detect the total flavonoid content.
Okra seed oil VE determination method
The content of okraokra seed oil VE was determined by HPLC. The okra seed oil was made into the test solution, and passed through an EP-C18 chromatographic column with methanol as the mobile phase, flow rate 0.3ml/min, injection volume 5μl, column temperature 30 ℃, use UV detector to detect at 285nm, and calculate the content by external standard method.
2 Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Okra Seed Oil
When the CO2 flow rate is 12L/h, the extraction pressure is 30MPa, and the extraction temperature is 45°C, the extraction rate of okra seeds is 16.2%.
In the experiment, under the conditions of 30 MPa and 12.0L/h of CO2 flow rate, the influence of different extraction temperatures (35, 45, 55 ℃) on 300g of dried okra seeds with a crushing particle size of 100 mesh was investigated.
With the increase in extraction temperature, the extraction amount of okra seeds oil showed a logarithmic trend with the increased extraction time. When the extraction temperature is 45 ℃, the extraction rate of sunflower seeds reaches the maximum.
This is because the increase in temperature will lead to a decrease in the density of the supercritical fluid on the one hand, which is not conducive to the co2 extraction process of solutes; on the other hand, the increase in temperature is conducive to the increase of the mass transfer rate and accelerates the extraction process. Therefore, the appropriate extraction temperature was selected as 45 ℃ in this experiment.
The experiment investigated the influence of different extraction pressures (20, 25, 30 MPa) under the conditions of 45°C and a CO2 flow rate of 12.0 L/min.
With the increase of extraction pressure, the extraction volume of okra seeds oil increases logarithmically. When the extraction pressure is 30MPa, the extraction rate of okra seed oil reaches the maximum.
This is due to the increase in pressure. On the one hand, the density of the supercritical fluid increases, which is conducive to the extraction of the solute; on the other hand, the increase in pressure is conducive to the increase of mass transfer rate and accelerates the extraction process.
Therefore, this experiment chooses the appropriate extraction temperature to be 30MPa.
In the experiment, under the conditions of 30MPa, 45°C, and a CO2 flow rate of 12.0L/min, the oil output of okra seeds oil in different extraction time periods were investigated. The oil yield of okraanihot seeds in the first 60 minutes of extraction is high; with the extension of the extraction time, the extraction volume of okra seeds increases logarithmically; after 150 minutes, the oil yield of okra seeds does not increase significantly, so the extraction The rate is increasing slowly. Therefore, this experiment chooses the appropriate extraction time as 150 min.
Okra co2 extraction process
- Extraction pressure: 300 bar;
- Extraction temperature: 45°C;
- Separation pressure: 90 bar;
- Separation temperature: 55 °C
- Extraction time: 90 min.
Through this experiment, we can get:
Using SCF to extract okra oil at an extraction pressure of 30 MPa, an extraction temperature of 45 ℃, and an extraction time of 2.5 hours, the optimization extraction rate of sunflower oil can be obtained. ；
Under this technological condition, the effective ingredient VE in okra can be extracted, and it is detected to be 23.0mg/100g.
SCF extraction technology can be used for okra oil extraction. A slight improvement in the extraction process can increase the VE yield. If ethanol is added as an entrainer, the effective ingredient flavonoids can be extracted.
The okra seeds oil produced by this process has good solubility and dispersibility, is easily fully absorbed by the human body, has no solvent residue, and is beneficial to health. It is another important extraction technology for okra oil extraction and has application value.
In conclusion, the use of SC-CO2 extraction for Abelmoschus manihot seed oil production offers several key advantages, including higher yield, better quality, and sustainability. This method has become increasingly popular in recent years due to its reliability, high specificity, and eco-friendliness. Abelmoschus manihot seed oil has a wide range of potential applications in various industries, making it a valuable and versatile ingredient. As concerns about environmental and health issues continue to grow, the use of methods such as SC-CO2 extraction will become even more important for achieving sustainable and efficient production processes.