Ganoderma spore oil is a lipid extract of Ganoderma lucidum spores, which accounts for 20% to 35% of the total weight of the spores, and is rich in biologically active ingredients, such as triterpenoid ganoderic acid, unsaturated fatty acids, and steroids. Ganoderma spore oil has special physiological effects and has broad market prospects in the field of health products and medicine.
Ganoderma lucidum, also known as fungus Ganoderma lucidum, or Ganoderma lucidum, is a genus of Ganoderma lucidum in the family Basidiomycetes Polyporus. It is a mushroom parasitic on the roots of the oak and other broad-leaved trees. Umbrella-shaped, hard, woody, kidney-capped or semicircular, purple-brown with paint-like luster.
The ancient Orientals praised Ganoderma lucidum as a “magic panacea” that can be brought back to life and a “celestial herb” that cures all diseases. Modern scientific and clinical medical studies have proved that Ganoderma lucidum contains rich nutrients and biologically active substances, and it has a tonic and strong effect, it is the most ideal natural medicine and healthy food for human beings.
Ganoderma lucidum spore powder
The Ganoderma lucidum spore powder is the seed of Ganoderma lucidum. It is the extremely tiny egg-shaped reproductive cells ejected from Ganoderma lucidum pleats during the growth and maturity of Ganoderma lucidum. It is only 4-6 micrometers and is a living organism.
The spore powder contains all the active essences of Ganoderma lucidum. It contains 18 kinds of active amino acids, more than 20 kinds of polysaccharides, alkaloids, organic germanium, terpenoids, various vitamins, trace elements, and other pharmacologically active ingredients. Longevity and longevity can significantly improve the body’s immune function. It has antiviral, anticancer, tumor-suppressing, hypoglycemic, and other functions. Its medicinal value is much higher than that of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body and mycelium.
CO2 extraction of Ganoderma lucidum spore oil
The supercritical co2 extraction device is used to extract the lucid Ganoderma spore powder after breaking the wall.
Mainly study the influence of single factors such as extraction pressure, extraction temperature, and extraction time on the extraction rate of Ganoderma lucidum spore oil during supercritical CO2 extraction.
The test results show that the optimal extraction conditions are extraction pressure of 25 MPa, extraction temperature of 45 ℃, and extraction time of 3 h. Under this optimal extraction process condition, the highest extraction rate is 28.8%. The Ganoderma lucidum spore oil is golden and translucent, and the quality is good.
CO2 Extraction Method
According to the reference, 100 g of broken lucid Ganoderma spore powder was placed in a 1 L extraction kettle at an extraction temperature of 40° C. extraction time of 3 h and a separation pressure of 6 MPa was selected at 10 MPa, 15 MPa, 20 MPa, 25 MPa, 30 MPa, 35 A total of 6 different gradients of MPa were used for the extraction pressure test to get the best extraction pressure.
Weigh 100 g of broken wall Ganoderma lucidum spore powder and place it in a 1 L extraction kettle at a separation pressure of 6 MPa for an extraction time of 3 h and the optimal extraction pressure conditions of 20°C, 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, and 40°C. There are 7 different gradients at 45°C and 50°C to perform the extraction temperature test to obtain the optimal extraction temperature T.
Weigh 100 g of broken wall Ganoderma lucidum spore powder and place it in a 1 L extraction kettle at a separation pressure of 6 MPa℃ and optimal extraction pressure and extraction temperature for 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, Eight different gradients of 180 min, 210 min and 240 min were used for extraction time test to get the best extraction time t.
3 Important Factors to Improve the CO2 Extraction Efficiency of Ganoderma Lucidum Spore Oil
Under the conditions of extraction temperature 40 ℃ extraction time 3 h and separation pressure 6 MPa, the effect of extraction pressure on the yield of Ganoderma lucidum spore oil was studied
Before the extraction pressure reached 25 MPa, the extraction rate of Ganoderma spore oil increased rapidly with the increase of pressure. But as the pressure continues to increase, the oil extraction rate tends to be in equilibrium.
The extraction pressure can increase the solubility of the solute by increasing the concentration of CO2, thereby affecting the extraction effect, but the increase of the extraction pressure will also reduce the diffusion coefficient of the solute in the solvent, hindering the extraction process.
In addition, the excessively high extraction pressure requires high-pressure resistance of the equipment and increases unsafe factors. Therefore, the extraction pressure was chosen to be 25 MPa.
Effect of extraction temperature on the extraction rate of Ganoderma lucidum spore oil under the extraction pressure of 6 MPa and the extraction time of 3 h and the optimal extraction pressure, the effect of extraction temperature on the yield of Ganoderma lucidum spore oil was investigated.
When the extraction temperature is low, the extraction rate of Ganoderma lucidum spore oil increases rapidly with the increase of temperature.
The oil extraction rate reached its highest value at a temperature of 45°C. After that, as the extraction temperature further increased, the oil extraction rate showed a downward trend.
This is because supercritical CO2 has a double effect on the solubility of the extracted material: on the one hand, the extraction temperature can increase the diffusion coefficient of the solute in CO2, thereby improving the extraction rate; on the other hand, the density of supercritical CO2 may vary with the temperature increase and decrease, so that the solubility of the solute in CO2 is reduced, hindering further extraction. Therefore, considering the comprehensive consideration, the optimal extraction temperature is 45℃.
Effect of extraction time on the extraction rate of Ganoderma lucidum spore oil under the conditions of extraction pressure of 25 MPa and extraction temperature of 45℃, the effect of extraction time on the extraction rate of Ganoderma lucidum spore oil was studied.
At the beginning of extraction, the yield of Ganoderma spore oil increased significantly with the increase of time. But when the extraction time exceeds 3 h, the oil yield reaches equilibrium and there is no longer a large fluctuation. This is because, in the early stage of extraction, the solute and the solvent have not been fully contacted.
With the extension of time, a good mass transfer effect is achieved. In the later stage of extraction, as the content of the substance to be extracted in the sample decreases, the oil extraction rate no longer changes.
Prolonging the extraction time will only waste energy consumption and CO2 consumption. From economic considerations, the extraction time is selected for 3 h.
Ganoderma lucidum spore oil CO2 extraction process
- Extraction pressure: 250 bar;
- Extraction Temperature: 45 ℃;
- Separation pressure: 80bar;
- Separation temparture: 50 ℃
- Extraction time: 2 h.
- Extraction rate: 28.8%.