Amygdalin, also known as vitamin B17, is a natural compound that exists in bitter almonds, bitter almond kernels, bitter almond grass and other plants, and belongs to a glucoside compound. The chemical structure of amygdalin consists of a glucose molecule, a benzaldehyde molecule and a hydrocyanic acid molecule.
Amygdalin has attracted widespread attention in medicine and pharmacology, and it is believed to have certain pharmacological activities, including anticancer, antioxidative, analgesic, antitussive, and anti-inflammatory effects. Laetrile is thought to be toxic by releasing hydrogen cyanide, which has a toxic effect on cancer cells. However, there are still controversies and insufficient research on the pharmacological activity and clinical application of amygdalin, and its safety and efficacy still need more research and verification.
Laetrile is used in some traditional and alternative medicines to treat cancer, chronic inflammation and some other diseases, but its clinical application is controversial. In some countries and regions, the use of amygdalin is restricted and supervised by laws and regulations, and it needs to be used rationally under the guidance of a doctor, and attention should be paid to potential toxicity and side effects.
Four common extraction methods of amygdalin
- Water extraction method: adding plant materials such as bitter almonds into water, boiling, soaking and other treatments, so that amygdalin is dissolved in water, and then through filtration, concentration, precipitation, and other steps, the extract of amygdalin is finally obtained.
- Ethanol extraction method: mix plant materials such as bitter almonds with organic solvents such as ethanol, soak, stir, etc., so that amygdalin is dissolved in ethanol, and then undergo steps such as filtration, evaporation, and precipitation to finally obtain the extraction of amygdalin things.
- Ultrasonic extraction method: Mix bitter almonds and other plant materials with solvents, and use ultrasonic-assisted extraction to accelerate the dissolution and mass transfer process of amygdalin by using the high-frequency vibration of ultrasonic waves, so as to achieve efficient extraction.
- Supercritical fluid extraction method: use supercritical fluid as the extraction medium, mix plant materials such as bitter almonds with supercritical fluid (such as CO2), and dissolve amygdalin from plant materials in the supercritical fluid by adjusting temperature and pressure, and then through steps such as decompression and temperature reduction, amygdalin is precipitated from the supercritical fluid, and finally the extract is obtained.
Supercritical CO2 extraction
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is one of the most effective methods for isolating pure amygdaloside from plants. The process involves using supercritical CO2 as a solvent to extract the compound from the plant material.
SFE is a safe and reliable method that is often preferred for its high efficiency and selectivity. Compared to conventional extraction methods, such as solvent extraction, SFE is less damaging and preserves the native qualities of the extracted compound, resulting in a higher quality product.
Three steps of SFE process for amygdaloid extraction
The SFE process for amygdaloside extraction involves three main steps – extraction, separation, and purification. During the extraction step, supercritical CO2 is used to extract the amygdaloside from the apricot kernels.
The separation step involves separating the extracted amygdaloside from the CO2 by reducing the pressure, while the purification step involves further refining the extracted amygdaloside to remove any remaining impurities.
One of the key advantages of SFE is the flexibility to adjust extraction parameters, such as pressure, temperature, and time, to maximize the yield and purity of the extracted compound. Additionally, supercritical CO2 can be easily removed from the extracted product, leaving behind a pure product with little to no toxic residue.
The supercritical CO2 extraction process for almond oil
Supercritical fluid extraction of almond oil has the advantages of high extraction rate, good selectivity, and no solvent residue, and is widely used in the food industry. The extracted products are natural and safe.
- Almond flour particle size: 60 mesh
- Extraction pressure: 30MPa
- Extraction temperature: 45℃
- Extraction time: 2.0h
- Almond oil extraction rate: 46.9%
In conclusion, supercritical fluid extraction is an effective, safe, and reliable method for isolating amygdaloside from plant material. This method offers superior results to conventional extraction methods such as solvent extraction, preserving the native qualities of the extracted compound and resulting in a high-quality final product with potential health benefits.