What is the extraction method of cumin oil?
Cumin, also known as Cuminum cyminum L., is an annual herb of Cuminum L., which belongs to Umbelliferae. Its flavor substance mainly exists in the volatile oil of fruit. Cumin seeds contain 2% – 5% volatile oil, mainly terpenes, aromatic aldehydes, ketones, and ethers. Cumin aldehyde, one of its main components, has many physiological functions.
Four extraction methods for cumin oil
At present, there are many types of research on extraction technology and components of cumin oil at home and abroad, including steam distillation, simultaneous distillation extraction, supercritical extraction, and organic solvent extraction. However, the above-mentioned extraction methods have different effects on product quality.
- In the water vapor method, due to the long-term contact between raw materials and water vapor, some fragile aroma components are easy to be destroyed and decomposed;
- In the solvent method, the residual solvent will affect the product safety;
- In the supercritical CO2 extraction process method, due to its special extraction system, some oils and pigments in the seeds will be obtained at the same time as the essential oil.
Analysis method of cumin essential oil
The area normalization method is the most widely used method in the quantitative analysis of cumin essential oil, but it is only suitable for all components that can flow out of the chromatographic column and have a response on the detector. As the composition of cumin oil is very complex, it is difficult to fully meet the above conditions, so the area normalization method for quantitative analysis may cause significant errors.
5 parameters of CO2 extraction of cumin oleoresin
The essential oil of cumin was extracted by the supercritical CO2 extraction process, and the optimal process of supercritical CO2 extraction was determined by studying the influence of raw material particle size, extraction pressure, extraction temperature, extraction time, and other factors on the oil yield and product value of cumin. In addition, the cumin raw material was pre-treated by the aging process and then extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction technology to obtain the cooked cumin essential oil with a cooked aroma. The research results show that the optimal process parameters for supercritical CO_2 extraction of cumin oil are: raw material particle size 30 mesh, extraction pressure 30 MPa, extraction temperature 60 °C, extraction time 2.5 h, the yield of essential oil is about 13.97%, and the cumin aldehyde in the essential oil is 13.97%. The quality score is as high as 32.75%. The optimal roasting temperature of cooked cumin essential oil in the aging process is 180℃, and the optimal extraction conditions of supercritical CO2 are: raw material particle size 30 mesh, extraction pressure 25MPa, extraction temperature 60℃, extraction time 2.5h, the yield of essential oil is about 11.38 %, the mass fraction of cumin aldehyde in essential oil was as high as 31.95%.
- Pulverization degree: 40 mesh
- Extraction pressure: 35 MPa
- Extraction temperature: 40°C
- Extraction time: 150 min
- Yield： 13.56%